Coal availability use states imports

Coal quality mining process

Coal reserves india states

COAL RESERVES in indian states:

  • India holds the 5thbiggest coal reserves in the world. Around 7% of the world’s proven coal reserves are located in India.
  • As a result of exploration carried out up to the maximum depth of 1200m by the GSI, CMPDI, SCCL and MECL etc, a cumulative total estimated coal reserve (resource) of the country as per the Coal Inventory published by GSI, as on 01.04.2022 is 361411.46 million tonnes”.  Details of State-wise and category-wise coal resource are given as under:
  • (Million tonnes)
State Measured (331) Indicated (332) Inferred (333) Total Resource
Total 187105.32 147252.18 27053.96 361411.46
Odisha 48572.58 34080.42 5451.60 88104.60
Jharkhand 53245.02 28259.67 5155.41 86660.10
Chhattisgarh 32053.42 40701.35 1436.99 74191.76
West Bengal 17233.88 12858.84 3778.53 33871.25
Madhya Pradesh 14051.66 12722.97 4142.10 30916.73

Types of coal found in India:

Types of coal on the basis of carbon content Types of coal on the basis of a time period
Anthracite: It is the highest grade of coal containing a high percentage of 80 to 95% carbon content. It is hard and brittle. It is found in smaller quantities in regions of Jammu and Kashmir. India is deficient in this type, & imports Gondwana coal: Around 98% of India’s total coal reserves are from Gondwana times. This coal was formed about 250 million years ago.
Bituminous: It is a medium grade of coal having high heating capacity and carries 60 to 80% of carbon content and a low level of moisture content. It is the most commonly used type of coal for electricity generation in India. Most bituminous coal is found in Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh. Tertiary coal: It is of younger age. It was formed from 15 to 60 million years ago.


Lignite: It is the lowest grade coal with the least carbon content.  It carries 40 to 55% carbon content. It is found in the regions of Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Jammu & Kashmir.
Peat: It has less than 40% carbon content. It is in the first stage of transformation from wood to coal. It has low calorific value and burns like wood.


Global coal distribution


Distribution of Coal reserves Across the World:

  • Coal is a widespread resource for energy and chemicals.
  • The quantities of proven coal reserves in the world are typically shown in Millions of Tons of Coal Equivalent (MTCE).
  • Nearly 75 per cent of the world’s recoverable coal resources are controlled by five countries:
    • United States (~22 per cent)
    • Russia (~15 per cent)
    • Australia (~14 per cent)
    • China (~13 per cent)
    • India (~10 per cent)

Import coal Imports countries use


Coal Imports:


As per the present Import policy, coal can be freely imported (under Open General Licence) by the consumers themselves

The government estimates producing 1 billion tonnes of coal in the current financial year while reducing imports. In FY24, the country's coal sector companies cumulatively imported 265 million tonnes of coal mainly for power plants, up from 245 million Tonnes in FY23, as per official data.

More about coal imports:

  • Use – Power sector
  • Bought from – Indonesia, Australia, china

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