Prices and Exports
- Total Cropped Area in the country is 200 million Hectare (Th Ha) and Gross Irrigated Area in the country is 99 million Hectare(48%) in 2022. As per the Land Use Statistics 2014- 15, the total geographical area of the country is 328.7 million hectares, of which 140.1 million hectares is the reported net sown area and 198.4 million hectares is the gross cropped area with a cropping intensity of 142%.
- The net area sown works out to be 43% of the total geographical area.
- The net irrigated area is 68.4 million hectares.
- There has been a continuous decline in the share of agriculture in the national GDP. Between 1970 and 2015, the GDP share of agriculture has fallen from 43% to 16%, before it rose marginally till 2022 to 18%.
- Over 45 years the number of farms in India more than doubled from 71 million in 1971 to 145 million in 2016, while the average farm size more than halved from 2.28 hectares to 1.08 hectares. 86% of India’s farmers are categorized as ‘small and marginal’, meaning they own less than 2 hectares
- In 2022, 22-25% of Chinese were employed in agriculture compared to more than 50% of Indians.
- India is one of the largest agricultural product exporters in the world. During 2021-22, the country recorded US$ 49.6 billion in total agriculture exports with a 20% increase from US$ 41.3 billion in 2020-21.
The estimated production of major crops during 2021-22 is as under:
|Yr/Status||commodity||Total production (million tonnes)||Global position|
|2022||Foodgrains||315-320||2nd (behind china)|
|2022||wheat||107||2nd (behind china)|
|2022||Rice||130||2nd (behind china)|
|2022/exporter||Sugar||36-38||1st (ahead of brazil)|
- Foodgrains – 316.06 million tonnes. (record)
- Rice – 127.93 million tonnes. (record)
- Wheat – 111.32 million tonnes. (record)
- Nutri/Coarse Cereals – 49.86 million tonnes.
- Maize – 32.42 million tonnes. (record)
- Pulses – 26.96 million tonnes.(record)
- Tur – 4.00 million tonnes.
- Gram – 13.12 million tonnes.(record)
- Oilseeds – 37.15 million tonnes.
- Groundnut – 9.86 million tonnes.
- Soyabean –13.12 million tonnes.
- Rapeseed and Mustard – 11.46 million tonnes. (record)
- Sugarcane – 414.04 million tonnes.(record)
- Cotton – 34.06 million bales (each of 170 kg).
- Jute & Mesta – 9.57 million bales (each of 180 kg).
- Milk – 210 million tonnes in 2022
India is also the world second-largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, cotton, and groundnuts.
Which cropping season produces more food, Rabi vs kharif?
Of the total estimated foodgrain production in 2021-22, rabi production accounts for 159.68 million tonnes, while kharif output accounts for 156.04 million tonnes.
As per the DGCI&S data, the country’s agricultural products exports t in the latest FY of 2022 have been US$ 50.21 billion..
India ranked ninth in 2019 with 3.1% of the global agricultural exports, according to a World Trade Organisation (WTO) research report (trends in world agricultural trade in the last 25 years). India's agricultural exports expanded at a CAGR of 5.3% between 2010 and 2019 compared with China (4.6%), Brazil (2.7%) and the US (2.1%). Exports of coffee, grains and horticulture goods doubled during this time, while exports of meat, fish and processed products increased 3-5 times.